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10个汉语基本短语,你学会了吗?1天
  • luna

  • 2019年6
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  • 中国
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选择中国作为你的海外留学留学目的国,恭喜你,你太有眼光了。请相信我,我曾在北京和西安留学四年,语言仍是我最担心的事情之一。汉语拼音看着和英文字母一样,但是学习起来还真的不一样,尤其是带鼻音的更难,还有汉语文学,了解其中文学背景后学习真的非常有韵味。所以,学习汉语,一本汉语词典你必须准备:新华词典,这是不说话的老师。

 

我最喜欢的一本书是《迷失在中国星球》,书中将汉语描述为“语言的长城”,发音和声调的结合让说英语的人很难学。

 

如果你选择在中国留学,你很有可能知道一些基本知识,我建议大家将把更多的注意力放在课外学习的会话和文化交流上。

 

今天,我们开始学习一些汉语基础知识。对照一下,你掌握了吗?

 

1. NǎlǐNǎlǐ

字面意思:在哪里?在哪里?

 

目的意义:谁?我? !

 

你们很多人可能已经知道,在中国接受赞美是不礼貌的。而不是说“谢谢”,老一辈常说“nǎlǐnǎlǐ”代替。而直接的翻译是“where?”这句话的意思是“在哪里?”你在说谁?显然不是我!”

 

虽然有点过时,但我仍在使用这个短语“nǎlǐnǎlǐ”。这是因为我经常收到更多的赞美。当我不再使用其他短语,例如:“oh,of course not”或“you're tookind”我通常真诚地说:nǎlǐnǎlǐ”。逗得大家笑倒一片。人们会好奇地问:"Where didyou learn that?"。

 

2. Ài ya!

字面意思:哦,天哪!

 

表示惊讶、惊讶和沮丧的感叹词

 

各个年龄段的人都用“哎呀!”作为感叹语,是中国最常见的感叹词

 

你刚才掉东西了吗?“哎呀!”

 

看到你最喜欢的茶摊,你感到惊讶吗?“哎呀!”

 

你在故宫游玩了一整天,腰疼吗?“哎呀!”

 

我不得不承认,在中国呆了几年之后,我已经把这句话当成了口头禅。任何听到我说“哎呀!”时,当地人都会露出愉悦的笑容。

 

3. Jiè guò yī xià

 


字面意思:打扰一下

 

意思:对不起,让我过去!

 

中国人口众多,特别是步行街,街上人山人海,。如果你在北京或上海留学时,你会经常被人包围,当你挤过人群或挤出地铁时,如何礼貌地告诉人们让开?“借过一下”是礼貌的表达方式,而不是说“让开!”

 

重要的是,当你说“借过一下”的时候,你可能需要推一下你周围人。别担心会显得不礼貌。在中国,稍微用力一点并不表示粗鲁,大家都明白你的意思,不会引起大家的反感的。

 

4. Suí biàn

字面意思:休闲

 

本意:“随你喜欢”或“随便什么/随便哪一个”

 

一个朋友最近给我讲了一个笑话,用的是“随变”这个短语:

 

一对年轻夫妇外出吃饭,丈夫问她想去哪里吃饭。“随便”,她回答。“好的,那我们吃川菜,怎么样?”“哦,我不喜欢辣,”她回答。“好吧,那你想去哪里?”,“ 随便”她又说。“嗯……披萨怎么样?”“哦,我在减肥,我不能吃那个。”她回答。“我没有更多的想法了!”“你想去哪儿?”“她又说“随便”。

 

“随便”的字面意思是“随便”,最常用来礼貌地表达“随便你想要什么”或“我什么都行”。这是一个非常有用的短语。

 

你可能会发现,你的中国朋友或室友会问你想去哪里吃饭,或者问你有什么样的安排和建议。作为一名留学生,我喜欢向当地的朋友学习语言。毕竟,他们更熟悉这个城市、当地的文化和食物。我不想失礼,所以经常说“随便”,并建议他们来选择。

 

5.Zhēn de ma?

字面意思:真的吗?

 

意为:可以用来表示惊讶、惊讶或烦恼

 

平常说话的短语,“Zhēn de ma?”可以用于各种各样的情况下,就像英语短语“really?”。

 

你的一位中国朋友说他以前从未离开过中国。“Zhēn de ma?”

 

考试推迟了一个星期。“Zhēnde ma?”

 

如果你去台湾,一定要使用这个短语“zhēn de jiǎde ?”,字面上的意思是“是真是假?”,台湾和一些中国南方省份使用这个短语来代替传统的“Zhēn dema?”

 

6. Bùhào yìsi

 


字面意思:尴尬

 

本意:对不起

 

我相信你已经明白了这句话“duibuqǐ”(对不起),这意味着“I'm sorry”。根据我的经验,我意识到中国人很少说duibuqǐ!,现在“Bùhào yìsi”是一个更常见、更随意的短语。

 

第一种用法是“对不起”的一种形式。当你要在街上拦住某人问路,或者在地铁上与人擦肩而过时,这句话非常有用。

 

“Bùhào yìsi”的另一种用法是作为道歉的温和形式。认为“Bùhào yìsi”“抱歉!”和“duibuqǐ”“很抱歉!”。如果你踩了别人的脚,你应该说“duibuqǐ”, 但是如果你在公共汽车上轻轻撞到别人,说“Bùhào yìsi”就更贴切。

                                                                                                          

 

7. Nǐchīfàn le ma?

字面意思:你吃了吗?

 

本意:你好吗?

 

我花了很长一段时间才完全理解这句话。我明白“你吃了吗?”是中国人问“你好吗?”的一种方式,但我一直不知道如何回答。你真的应该别人你是否吃过东西,或者你应该告诉他们吃的什么菜?

 

你知道当你问别人“最近怎么样?”或者“嘿,你好吗?”你并不是在问他们怎么样,只是闲聊而已。同样以“Nǐchīfàn le ma?”问你是否吃过东西时,这个短语纯粹是闲聊。你可以回答是,或者不是;很好!这只是中国人表达关心的方式,纯属搭讪而已。

 

 

8. Āyí

字面意思:阿姨

 

本意:阿姨,保姆,或“婶婶”

 

在中国,你很快就会知道每个人都是“阿姨”、“叔叔”、“兄弟”或“姐妹”。对老师的孩子来说,你就是他的“姐姐”。走在街上的时候,一个老妇人可能会告诉他们的孙子,说“跟阿姨再见!”

 

有时候,很难确定你是“姐姐”还是“阿姨”。作为一名留学生,我就是一个“姐姐”,但当我做外教时,孩子们都叫我“阿姨”。然而,如果我的同事比我大很多,她的孩子即使是才上小学一年级,小朋友都会叫我“姐姐”。

 

“Āyí”也叫做保姆。当我海外留学时,我们请了阿姨,她每周打扫一次宿舍和清洗床单。称呼保姆为“阿姨”只是一个更礼貌、更熟悉的称呼,目的是让清洁女工感觉自己是家庭成员的一部分。

 

9. Màn man chī

字面意思:慢慢吃

 

本意:祝你胃口好!

 

当我刚到中国的时候,我不明白为什么每个人都告诉我要慢点吃。老实说,中国人是这个星球上吃饭得最快的民族之一!

 

直到几个月后,我才终于问自己为什么每个人都告诉我要慢点吃。很明显,这根本不是要你慢慢吃的意思!“慢慢吃”其实只是“享受你的食物”的另一种美好的说法。

 

你也可以听到人们告诉你多吃,说“Nǐduōchīyīdiǎn,“这真的意味着“吃更多!”

 

我终于明白,这其实只是招待客人的一种方式。中国人希望你感到舒适,不要把自己当外人。

 

10. Màn zǒu

字面意思:慢慢走

 

本意:保重!

 

我第一次听到“Màn zǒu”时,是在重庆。我们在重庆参加一个学术会议,司机来接我们时,嘴里一直重复“Màn zǒu”这句话,他是在告诉我们要小心,因为下雨了,走慢点,不要摔跤。

 

随着时间的推移,我随时可听到“Màn zǒu”,当我离开商店或餐厅时,服务员说“慢走”,打上一辆出租车时,朋友说“慢走”,离开朋友的公寓时,朋友说“慢走”我不断听到“Màn zǒu”,我意识到,“Màn zǒu”的另一种意思是“保重!”

 

我发现了这些汉语的小秘密,中国人是多么有涵养,有礼貌。我感觉他们真的在照顾我,告诉我要保重,当你来中国留学时,你也可以用这些短语。

 

附加短语: Bye Bye!

 

我肯定你已经知道"zàijiàn" 是“再见”的意思。真到我出国留学时,我才知道“"zàijiàn" (再见)”已经很少使用。中国人越来越洋气了,常用“Bye Bye!”来代替。

 

我以为人们只对外国人打招呼的方式,说“你好!”,但几周后,我意识到中国人也会对彼此说“你好”。

 

学好汉语,走遍天下都不怕!

 

 

10 Essential Phrases to Know Before Studying in China

 

You're about to study abroad in China. That'senough of a feat without having to worry about the language on top of theculture! Trust me, I studied abroad in Beijingand Xi'an fouryears ago, and language was one of the things I worried about most.

 

One of my favorite books, Lost on Planet China by Maarten Troost, describes Chinese as “the great wall of languages” because it’sdesigned to keep foreigners out. The pronunciation and tones combined make itreally difficult for English speakers to learn, even if you’re taking a dailyChinese class like I did throughout college.

 

I studied abroad in Beijingand Xi'an fouryears ago, and language was one of the things I worried about most.

If you're studying abroad inChina, chancesare you know some of the basics. Because of this, I'm going to focus a littlemore on conversational and cultural Chinese you'll learn outside of theclassroom.

 

If you're brand-new to the language, youmay want to start with my Quick Guide to Mandarin Chinese to learn the basicsbefore you start on this more advanced material.

 

If you prefer to read, rather than watch,this mini-lesson, scroll on for a written version (not a direct videotranscript) below:

 

1. Nǎlǐ nǎlǐ

Literal meaning: Where? Where?

Intended meaning: Who? Me?!

Many of you may already know that it'ssomewhat impolite to accept a compliment inChina. Rather than saying"thank you" the older generation often said "nǎlǐ nǎlǐ" instead. While the directtranslation is "where? where?" this basically means, "where? whoare you talking about? obviously not me!"

 

While it's a bit outdated, I still use thephrase "nǎlǐ nǎlǐ" allthe time in China. This is because I often receive more compliments than I'mused to getting back home. When I run out of other phrases like "oh, ofcourse not" or "you're too kind" I usually throw in an overlysincere "nǎlǐ nǎlǐ". Thisresults in a lot of laughs. "Where did you learn that?!" people willask.

 

2. Ài ya!

Literal meaning: Oh my!

Intended meaning: an exclamation used forsurprise, astonishment, and frustration

People of all ages use "ài ya!"as an exclamation. Possibly the most common exclamation inChina, "àiya!" can be used for everything from surprise and astonishment tofrustration and annoyance:

 

Did you just drop something? "àiya!"

Are you surprised to see your favorite teastand? "ài ya!"

Is your back sore from walking around the Forbidden City all day? "ài ya..."

I have to admit, after a few years inChinaI'veadopted this phrase as my constant companion. I've found that it puts a smileon the face of any local who hears me. Look at that foreigner using a Chineseexclamation!

 

3. Jiè guò yī xià

Literal meaning: Excuse me a moment

Intended meaning: Excuse me, let methrough!

China iscrowded. If you're studying in Beijing or Shanghai you'llconstantly be surrounded by people, and sometimes you just need to get through.What's a polite way to tell people to step aside as you push through a crowd orsqueeze out of the subway? "Jiè guò yī xià" is the nice version of"get out of my way!"

 

It's important here to note you might needto give your surrounding locals a little shove as you say the phrase. Don'tworry about coming off as impolite. It's not rude to push a little bit inChina, and yourwords will offset your light shove.

 

4. Suí biàn

Literal meaning: Casual

Intended meaning: "as you like"or "whatever/whichever"

One of my friends recently told me a jokeusing the phrase "suí biàn":

 

A couple is heading out to dinner and theboy asks where she'd like to go. "Suí biàn", she responds."Okay, how about Sichuan?","Oh, I don't like spicy" she replies. "Alright, well where wouldyou like to go?", "Suí biàn" she says again. "Well... howabout pizza?" he suggests. "Oh, I'm on a diet I can't eat that."she responds. "I have no more ideas!" he exclaims. "Where do youwant to go?", "Oh... Suí biàn" she says again.

 

"Suí biàn" which literally means"casual" is most commonly used as a polite way of saying"whatever you want" or "anything is fine with me". I haveto admit I use this all the time inChina, even when I'm speakingEnglish! It's such a useful phrase.

 

You may find that your Chinese friends orroommate will ask you where you'd like to eat, or if you have any suggestionsfor the day. As a study abroad student, I liked to take the lead from my localfriends. After all, they're much more familiar with the city, the culture, andthe food. Not wanting to be impolite, I'd often say "suí biàn" andsuggest they choose. Letting my Chinese friends take the lead often lead toamazing experiences and delicious meals... except for that one time my friendordered bull penis.

 

5. Zhēn de ma?

Literal meaning: Really?

Intended meaning: Can be used for surprise,astonishment, or annoyance

A casual conversational phrase, "zhēnde ma?" can be used for a variety of circumstances, just like the Englishphrase "really?".

 

One of your Chinese friends admits he'snever leftChinabefore. "zhēn de ma?"

The test has been postponed a week."zhēn de ma?!"

Someone stops walking right in front of anescalator to answer a text, blocking literally twenty people from using it."zhēn de ma??!"

If you're heading to Taiwan, be sure to usethe phrase “zhēn de jiǎ de?" which literally means"real or fake?" The Taiwanese and a few provinces in Southern Chinause this phrase instead of the traditional "zhēn de ma?" and your Chinesefriends will sure be impressed when you whip it out!

 

6. Bùhào yìsi

Literal meaning: Embarrassing

Intended meaning: Excuse me or sorry

If you've taken Chinese in school, I'm sureyou've learned the phrase "duìbùqǐ" (对不起) which means "I'msorry". However, it wasn't until a few months into my study abroadexperience that I realized Chinese people rarely say duìbùqǐ! "Bùhào yìsi" is amuch more common and casual phrase that you'll use constantly in China.

 

The first way to use "bùhào yìsi"is a form of "excuse me". This is great for when you're about to stopsomeone on the street to ask for directions, or as you're bumping past peopleon the subway.

 

A second way to use "bùhào yìsi" isas a mild form of sorry. Think of "bùhào yìsi" as "sorry!" and"duìbùqǐ" as "I'm so sorry!". If you spill someone's drink orstep on a person's foot you should probably say "duìbùqǐ", butif you lightly bump into someone or have to squeeze past a person on the bus,"bùhào yìsi" is more than fine.

 

7. Nǐchīfàn le ma?

Literal meaning: Have you eaten?

Intended meaning: How are you?

It took me a while to fully comprehend thisphrase. I understood that "have you eaten?" is a Chinese way ofasking "How are you?" but I never quite knew what my response wassupposed to be. Are you really supposed to tell people if you've eaten, or areyou supposed to tell them how you are?

 

Well you know how when you ask someone"How's it going?" or say "Hey, how are you?" you aren'treally asking how they are, it's just small talk. Same with "Nǐ chīfàn lema?". While they are asking if you've eaten, the phrase is purely smalltalk. You can answer yes, or no; either is fine! This is just the Chinese wayof expressing concern and starting a conversation with you.

 

8. Āyí

Literal meaning: Aunt

Intended meaning: Aunt, maid, or"auntie"

One thing you'll learn very quickly inChinais thateveryone is an "aunt", "uncle", "brother" or"sister". To your teacher's child you'll be an "oldersister". While walking down the street, an old woman might tell theirgrandchild to "wave to auntie!"

 

Sometimes it's complicated to determine ifyou're an "older sister" or an "auntie". As a student, Iwas usually an "older sister" but when I taught English abroad, I was"auntie" to my co-workers' young children. However, if my co-workeris significantly older than me, and the child is grade-school aged, I might bean "older sister" instead.

 

The interesting thing about"auntie" or "Āyí" is that it is also applied to maids aswell. When I studied abroad we had ayi's who cleaned our dorms once a week andwashed the sheets. I currently live in an apartment where our "Āyí"comes in twice a week to clean and do laundry (yes, I know I'm spoiled), and myoffice has two ayi's as well. Calling your maid an "auntie" is just amore respectful and familiar title, one that makes cleaning ladies feel likepart of the family.

 

9. Màn man chī

Literal meaning: Eat slowly

Intended meaning: Bon appétit!

When I first arrived inChina, Icouldn't figure out why everyone kept telling me to eat slower. Let's behonest, Chinese people are some of the fastest eaters on this planet!

 

It wasn't until a few months into myprogram that I finally asked why everyone was telling me to eat slower.Apparently that's not the meaning at all! "Eat slowly" is really justa nice way of saying "enjoy your food!"

 

You may also hear people tell you to eatmore, saying "Nǐ duō chī yīdiǎn,"which really means "have some more!" I can't tell you how many timesmy Chinese friends and co-workers have told me to eat more, or have stated thatI barely ate anything at the end of a meal. When I attest that no, I actuallystuffed my face, they always disagree.

 

I finally learned that this is really justa way of being a good host. Chinese people want you to feel comfortable andfull, and will encourage you to keep eating until your stomach literallybursts. It doesn't help that your friends will probably order five dishes forjust the two of you to share. Seriously, I'm not kidding.

 

10. Màn zǒu

Literal meaning: Walk slowly

Intended meaning: Take care!

The first time I heard "màn zǒu", I was getting my master's abroad in China. My Chineseclassmates and I were at an academic conference in Chongqing, and our driverwho picked us up from the airport kept repeating "màn zǒu", "màn zǒu" as wewalked to his car. I figured he was telling us to be careful and walk slowlysince it was raining.

 

However, as time passed I started to hearit everywhere! As I was leaving a shop or a restaurant, getting out of a taxi,leaving a friend's apartment, I'd constantly hear "màn zǒu!" Finally, I realized, "màn zǒu" isjust another way of saying "take care!"


Once I discovered this little Chineselanguage secret, I couldn't get over how polite everyone inChinaseemed tobe. I felt like they were really looking out for me, telling me to take careand have a nice day. When you study abroad inChina, you can use the phraseyourself too. Say it to your teacher as she leaves the classroom, or yourroommate as he heads out for the day. Trust me, people will take notice!

 

Bonus: Bye Bye!

Surprise! Here's one more phrase you shouldknow before studying abroad inChina!

 

In your Chinese class I'm sure you'velearned that "zàijiàn" (再见) is the Chinese word for"goodbye". However, it wasn't until I studied abroad that I learned"zàijiàn" is rarely used in China.Chinese people use "bye bye" instead!

 

At first I thought people were only sayingit to me as a foreigner in the same way that everyone knows "hello",but after a few weeks, I realized that Chinese people say it to each other too.Rarely do I ever use "zàijiàn" now. Bye bye works just as well and ismuch less formal.

 

Are You Ready to Study Abroad?

There you have it, ten essential Chinesephrases (and one bonus phrase) to get you through your time abroad!

 

Trust me, I know that studying abroad inChinacan be intimidating. While I'd had a year and a half of Chinese before Istudied abroad, I could barely speak outside of the classroom. It wasn't untilI made Chinese friends and put forth the effort outside of class that I reallystarted to see results. Put yourself out there, practice your conversationalChinese and you'll be fluent in no time!


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